Английский язык. Теория и практика. Употребление времен

Ричард Грант
Английский язык. Теория и практика. Употребление времен

Разница между The Past Simple и The Present Perfect

1. Говорим или не говорим, когда что-то произошло.

В Present Perfect важен факт совершения действия и не имеет значения, когда именно оно произошло. В Past Simple обычно указывается, когда именно произошло действие.

Слова-маркеры в Past Simple: yesterday (вчера), in 2015 (в 2015)ago (тому назад), when I was younger (когда я был моложе) и другие.

I have ridden a horse! – Я ездил верхом! (неважно, когда это было)

I rode a horse yesterday morning! – Вчера утром я ездил верхом! (конкретный момент в прошлом)

2. Законченный период времени или текущий.

Если мы говорим о периоде времени, который все еще продолжается, употребляем Present Perfect. Часто на текущий период указывают такие слова-маркеры, как today (сегодня), this week (на этой неделе)this month (в этом месяце) и this year (в этом году).

Если период закончен, используем Past Simple. На него указывают следующие слова-маркеры: last week (на прошлой неделе), last month (в прошлом месяце), last year (в прошлом году).

I haven’t seen you in the office this week. – Я не видел тебя в офисе на этой неделе. (неделя не закончилась)

I didn’t see Sofie at work last week. – Я не видел Софи на работе на прошлой неделе. (прошлая неделя закончилась)

3. Связь с настоящим и факт из прошлого.

У Present Perfect всегда есть какая-то привязка к настоящему, тогда как при помощи Past Simple можно просто изложить факты о прошлом.

We’re so happy! We have learnt English! – Мы так счастливы! Мы выучили английский! (мы счастливы сейчас – привязка к настоящему)

Ivan learned English at school. – Иван учил английский в школе. (факт из прошлого)

Упражнение 30

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. 2. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very early. 3. I (not yet to eat) today. 4. She just (to go) out. 5. It (to be) very cold yesterday. 6. She (to live) there last year. 7. Where you (to spend) your holidays? 8. He (not to eat) yesterday. 9. She (to leave) the room a moment ago. 10. When you (to meet) him? 11. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 12. You ever (to spend) your holidays in the Crimea? 13. You (to play) the piano yesterday?

Упражнение 31

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. We (not yet to solve) the problem. 2. I (not to see) him since 2006. 3. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 4. While travelling in the Crimea, I (to meet) your friend. 5. You (to play) the piano today? 6. When it all (to happen)? 7. How many mushrooms you (to gather)? 8. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 9. I never (to visit) that place. 10. What you (to prepare) for today? 11. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o’clock the weather (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 12. Where you (to put) the newspaper? I want to read it, but cannot find it anywhere. 13. I (to buy) a pair of gloves yesterday.

Упражнение 32

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. He (to visit) that place last year. 2. Look at this birdhouse. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it last Sunday. 3. Show me the dress which you (to make). 4. The new school (to begin) working last year. 5. The wind (to blow) off the man’s hat, and he cannot catch it. 6. I just (to get) a letter from Tom. 7. Where you (to put) my pen? I cannot find it. 8. Oh, how dark it is! A large black cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few minutes. 9. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I will go out. 10. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 11. You (to take) any photographs while travelling in the south? 12. You (to see) Mary today? 13. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor because of the wind.

Упражнение 33

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. The building of the house (to begin) early in April. 2. The wind (to change) in the morning. 3. He (to be) abroad five years ago. 4. When you (to see) Mary? – I (to see) her last week. 5. When you (to open) the window? – I (to open) it ten minutes ago. 6. The rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 7. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 8. You (to be) in the Caucasus last year? 9. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 10. The sun (not to rise) yet, but the sky in the east is getting lighter every minute. 11. We already (to solve) the problem. 12. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot. 13. They (to leave) England when he (to be) still a child.

Упражнение 34

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Look at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 2. I (to see) you walking along the street the other day with a heavy bag. 3. He (to come) a moment ago. 4. I (to see) Pete today. 5. He (not yet to come) back. 6. He is not at school today, he (to fall) ill. – When he (to fall) ill? – He (to fall) ill yesterday. 7. I (not to read) the newspaper today. 8. I never (to speak) to him. 9. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 10. He (to go) already? 11. I already (to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk. 12. It is very late, and trams (to stop) running: we must find a taxi to get home. 13. He just (to finish) his work.

Упражнение 35

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 2. When you (to see) him last? 3. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 4. How many times you (to be) to Toronto? 5. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dictation? 6. I just (to meet) our teacher. 7. I (not to see) him for ages. 8. He just (to come) home. 9. At last I (to translate) this article: now I will have a little rest. 10. What books you (to read) when you (to live) in the country? 11. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 12. His health (to improve) greatly since I (to see) him last. 13. He (to come) home a minute ago.

Упражнение 36

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. We (to go) to the country yesterday, but the rain (to spoil) all the pleasure. 2. They (not yet to come) from the south. 3. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 4. You (to pass) your driving test yet? – Yes, I (to pass) it in May, but I (not to buy) a car yet. 5. Nick (to play) football yesterday. 6. My watch was going in the morning, but now it (to stop). 7. He (to be) ill last week, but now he (to recover). 8. I (not to see) you for a long time. I (to see) you in town two or three days ago, but you (not to see) me. I (to be) on a bus. 9. He already (to move). He (to find) a nice flat last Christmas and he (to be) there a year already. 10. She already (to come) from school. Now she is doing her homework. 11. The lecture (not yet to begin) and the students are talking in the classroom. 12. If everybody (to read) this new novel, let’s discuss it. 13. I (to read) this book last year.

Упражнение 37

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. You (to book) tickets? – Yes, I …. I (to book) them several days ago. 2. I (to read) this book this year. 3. I can hardly recognize you. I (not to see) you since you (to leave) for Toronto. And you (to change) so much. 4. I never (to be) to Washington. 5. You (to read) all the books on this shelf? 6. You ever (to be) to New York? 7. I (not to see) my cousin since last year. 8. I don’t think you ever (to see) Niagara Falls. 9. Why you (to put) these things in the wrong place? 10. I (to invite) Linda to the party. – When you (to see) her? – I (not to see) her for ages. I (to call) her an hour ago. 11. Why you (to leave) the door open? You will catch cold sitting in the draught. 12. “We (not to meet) for such a long time!” said my friend. “Yes, indeed,” I answered, “and we both (to grow).”

Разница между The Past Simple и The Past Perfect

Past Simple используется, когда действия происходят в хронологическом порядке, а Past Perfect – когда нужно показать, какое действие произошло первым, раньше остальных действий.

He started the car, turned the radio on and fastened the seat belt. – Он завел машину, включил радио и пристегнул ремень безопасности.

 

Действия описываются в хронологическом порядке: сначала он завел машину, потом включил радио и пристегнул ремень безопасности.

He started the car, turned the radio on, but before he had fastened the seat belt. – Он завел машину, включил радио, но перед этим пристегнул ремень безопасности.

Действия описываются не в хронологическом порядке: сначала он пристегнул ремень безопасности, а затем завел машину и включил радио.

Часто в подобных предложениях используется слово when (когда).

When I got home, my son took my car. – Когда я пришел домой, мой сын взял у меня машину.

When I got home, I found that my son had taken my car. – Когда я пришел домой, я обнаружил, что мой сын взял мою машину.

Если из контекста нам понятно, что одно действие произошло раньше другого, можно использовать как Past Perfect, так и Past Simple. Часто понять контекст и очередность событий помогают следующие слова-маркеры: before (перед тем как, до того как), after (после того как), first (сперва, сначала), as soon as (сразу после того как, как только)earlier (раньше) и т. д.

I didn’t worry about speaking in front of so many people. I gave public speeches earlier. – Я не переживал насчет выступления перед большим количеством людей. Я и ранее выступал на публике.

I didn’t worry about speaking in front of so many people. I had given public speeches earlier. – Я не переживал насчет выступления перед большим количеством людей. Я и ранее выступал на публике.

Упражнение 38

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.

1. When the police … (to arrive), we already … (to catch) the thief. 2. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o’clock. 3. By two o’clock the teacher (to examine) all the students. 4. Jack … (to finish) the test before the bell … (to ring). 5. Tom (to return) from the cinema by five o’clock. 6. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (to leave) my report at home. 7. When Anna … (to come) to say good-night, her children already … (to fall) asleep. 8. I (to finish) my homework at seven o’clock. 9. My friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the exams successfully. 10. Scott already … (to prepare) the dinner when her husband … (to get) home from work. 11. I (to finish) my homework by seven o’clock. 12. Poor Oliver (to lie) unconscious on the spot where Sikes (to leave) him. 13. When Brad and Susan … (to get) married, they … (to know) each other for 3 years. 14. He (to think) that he (to lose) the money. 15. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) a good dinner.

Упражнение 39

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.

1. He (to open) his eyes, (to look) around and (to try) to remember what (to happen) to him. 2. She … (not to enjoy) the film because she … (to read) the book before. 3. Ann (to tell) me that she (to see) an interesting film. 4. All the passengers (to see) at once that the old man (to travel) a great deal in his life. 5. Our apartment … (to be) in a mess because I … (to have) a birthday party the night before. 6. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner. 7. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home. 8. We … (not to go) to a restaurant because we … (to spend) all our money on clothes. 9. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework. 10. During the holidays my friend (to visit) the village where he (to live) in his childhood. 11. Mary … (can’t go skating) after she … (to break) her leg. 12. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books. 13. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin). 14. Larry … (to be) late because he … (to get) stuck in a traffic jam. 15. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before. 16. Yesterday I (to find) the book which I (to lose) in summer.

Упражнение 40

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.

1. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me that she (to receive) a letter from grandfather. 2. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw). 3. Where you (to work) before you (to go) to university? 4. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) from the field. 5. He (to know) French before he (to visit) France. 6. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to wash) his hands. 7. Lanny (to say) that he (to get) his education in Cape Town. 8. The teacher (to understand) that Lena (not to do) her homework. 9. The boy (to want) to act the main part in the play because he (to organize) the theatre. 10. I (to know) that my friend (not yet to come). 11. Lanny (not to know) who (to attack) him in the darkness. 12. When I (to wake) up yesterday, father already (to go) to work. 13. The girl (to be) glad that she (to find) a seat near the window. 14. Nick (to think) that his father (not yet to come) home. 15. Suddenly he (to remember) that he (not to ring) her up in the morning. 16. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to leave).

Разница между The Present Perfect и The Past Perfect

Время Present Perfect используют для описания действия, которое завершилось к настоящему моменту, в то время как Past Perfect – для действия, которое началось и завершилось к определенному моменту в прошлом.

Основные слова-маркеры Past Perfect и Present Perfectalready (уже)just (только что), since (с), yet (уже; еще не)ever (когда-либо), for (на протяжении).

He has already left, but you can call him and ask to wait for you. – Он уже ушел, но ты можешь ему позвонить и попросить подождать тебя. – Present Perfect – (действие завершилось к определенному моменту в настоящем)

When I called the police, the thief had already gone. – Когда я позвонил в полицию, вор уже убежал. – Past Perfect – (действие завершилось к определенному моменту в прошлом)

I haven’t finished cooking yet. Can you, please, wait a bit? – Я еще не закончила готовить ужин. Можешь, пожалуйста, немного подождать? – Present Perfect – (действие завершилось к определенному моменту в настоящем)

I hadn’t finished cooking dinner yet so he ate a sandwich. – Он пришел домой очень рано вчера. Я еще не закончила готовить ужин, поэтому он съел сэндвич. – Past Perfect – (действие завершилось к определенному моменту в прошлом)

We have been married for 20 years, and now he wants to get divorced. – Мы женаты 20 лет, и теперь он хочет развестись. – Present Perfect – (действие завершилось к определенному моменту в настоящем)

We had been married for 20 years and got divorced in 2018. – Мы были женаты 20 лет и развелись в 2018. – Past Perfect – (действие завершилось к определенному моменту в прошлом)

Разница между The Future Perfect, The Future Simple и The Future Continuous

Future Simple – что-то произойдет в будущем – говорим об этом как о факте, без акцента на продолжительности или завершенности действия.

I will buy tickets for the concert tomorrow. – Я куплю билеты на концерт завтра.

He will talk to his boss as soon as he can. – Он поговорит с боссом, как только сможет.

Future Continuous – действие начнется в будущем и будет длиться какое-то время – акцент на продолжительности этого действия.

I will be going home from work this time. – В это время я буду идти с работы домой.

I will be waiting for you. – Я буду ждать тебя.

Future Perfect – действие завершится к определенному моменту в будущем – акцент на результате этого действия.

They will have finished the project before the deadline. – Они закончат проект в срок.

We will have been best friends for 30 years by then. – К тому времени мы будем друзьями уже 30 лет.

Разница между The Present Perfect Continuous и The Present Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous – действие началось какое-то время назад, длилось и все еще продолжается.

She has been playing volleyball since childhood. – Она играет в волейбол с детства. Она настоящий профессионал.

I have been washing the car. I need to take a shower. – Я мыл машину. Мне нужно принять душ.

Present Continuous – действие происходит в настоящий момент.

She is playing volleyball. Look – she is wearing black shorts and a white T-shirt. – Она играет в волейбол. Посмотри – на ней черные шорты и белая футболка.

I am washing the car. Then I’ll have a shower. – Я мою машину. Затем я приму душ.

Разница между The Present Perfect Continuous и The Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous – акцент на продолжительности действия. Неважно, закончилось действие или нет.

I have been cleaning the kitchen all morning. I am very tired. – Я убирала кухню все утро. Я очень устала.

Mary is very studious. She has been doing homework all evening. – Мэри очень прилежная. Она делает домашнее задание весь вечер.

Present Perfect – акцент на результате действия. Действие выполнено.

I have cleaned the kitchen. It is as good as new now. – Я убрала кухню. Теперь она как новенькая.

She can go out because she has done her homework. – Она может идти гулять, потому что сделала домашнее задание.

Present Perfect Continuous – действие все еще продолжается или только что закончилось. Можно задать вопрос how long? (как долго?).

I have been watching the last season of “Game of Thrones” since yesterday. – Я смотрю последний сезон “Игры престолов” со вчерашнего дня.

They have been hitchhiking for seven years. – Они путешествуют автостопом уже семь лет.

Present Perfect – действие завершено. Можно задать вопросы how much? (сколько?)how many times? (сколько раз?)how often? (как часто?).

I have watched the last episode of “Game of Thrones” three times. – Я посмотрел последнюю серию “Игры престолов” три раза.

I have never hitchhiked in my life. – Я никогда в жизни не путешествовал автостопом.

Разница между The Present Perfect Continuous и The Past Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous – действие началось в прошлом и либо все еще продолжается, либо у него есть результат в настоящем.

What have you been doing all day today? – I have been working on a presentation for our next meeting. – Чем ты занимался весь день сегодня? – Я работал над презентацией для нашего следующего собрания.

Past Continuous – действие происходило в определенный момент в прошлом.

What were you doing at 9 p.m. yesterday? – I was working on a presentation for our next meeting. – Что ты делал вчера в 9 часов вечера? – Я работал над презентацией для нашего следующего собрания.

 

Разница между The Future Perfect Continuous и The Future Perfect Simple

Future Perfect Continuous и Future Perfect Simple похожи, а иногда могут быть взаимозаменяемыми. Например, в случае с глаголами, которые не используются с временами группы Continuous: know, understand и другими. Однако есть между ними одно важное отличие – для Future Perfect Continuous важно подчеркнуть длительность действия, а Future Perfect Simple делает акцент на завершенности действия и его результате.

By the end of the day I will have been reading for eight hours. – К концу дня я буду читать на протяжении восьми часов. – Future Perfect Continuous

By the end of the day I will have read 500 pages of the book. – К концу дня я прочитаю 500 страниц книги. – Future Perfect Simple

I will have been working on this project for six months by the end of this year. – К концу года я буду работать над этим проектом уже на протяжении шести месяцев. – Future Perfect Continuous

I will have finished working on this project by the end of this year. – К концу года я закончу работать над этим проектом. – Future Perfect Simple

Запомните:

В придаточных предложениях времени и условия после союзов if, when, as soon as, before, till/until, after вместо будущего времени употребляется настоящее время.

Упражнение 41

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или Future Simple.

1. I (to play) chess tomorrow. 2. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain). A cold wind often (to blow). 3. You (to come) to my place next Sunday? 4. My sister (not to like) coffee. 5. I (not to play) chess tomorrow. 6. The weather (to be) fine today. It (to be) warm, the sun (to shine) brightly. A soft wind (to blow). Small white clouds (to sail) in the sky. 7. You (to read) this book next week? 8. When you (to go) to bed every day? 9. You (to play) chess tomorrow? 10. Don’t go out: it (to rain) heavily. 11. You (to read) books every day? 12. What he (to read) now? 13. He (to play) chess every day. 14. Take your raincoat with you. I am afraid it (to rain) in the evening and you (to get) wet through if you (not to put) it on.

Упражнение 42

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или Future Simple.

1. You (to read) a book now? 2. What he (to read) every day? 3. He (not to play) chess every day. 4. Every spring birds (to come) to our garden and (to sing) in the trees. 5. I (not to see) him tomorrow. 6. What he (to read) tomorrow? 7. He (to play) chess every day? 8. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room. 9. What you (to do) tomorrow? 10. You (to give) me this book tomorrow? 11. They (to play) chess now. 12. It usually (not to snow) at this time of the year. 13. What your friend (to do) tomorrow? 14. Where she (to be) tomorrow?

Упражнение 43

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или Future Simple.

1. They (not to play) chess now. 2. What the weather (to be) like now? It (to snow)? – No, it … . 3. Where you (to go) next summer? 4. Where she (to go) tomorrow? 5. They (to play) chess now? 6. We (to go) out of town to ski on Sunday? – Yes, we … if it (to snow) this week and if there (to be) a lot of snow everywhere. 7. Where you (to go) every morning? 8. She (to go) to the country with us tomorrow? 9. Nick (to walk) in the park now. 10. What you (to do) tomorrow? – We (to go) out of town if the weather (not to change) for the worse. You (to come) with us? – With pleasure, if only I (not to have) too much work to do at home. 11. Where you (to go) now? 12. They (to stay) at home tomorrow. 13. Nick (to go) to school every day. 14. If we (to have) TV sets at our supermarket, they (to inform) customers about things in the store.

Упражнение 44

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или Future Simple.

1. Look! Mary (to dance). 2. What you (to do) now? I (to see) that you (not to read). 3. Nick (to go) to school tomorrow. 4. If we (to play) music, it (to produce) the right atmosphere. 5. She (to dance) every day. 6. When you (to finish) your homework? It (to be) very late, it (to be) time to go to bed. 7. I (to miss) your excellent cooking! 8. If we (to put) in cameras, they (to stop) people stealing things. 9. She (to dance) tomorrow? 10. How you usually (to spend) evenings? 11. You ever (to buy) presents? 12. If we (to employ) more assistants, they (to help) our customers. 13. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow. 14. What you (to do) in the country next summer?

Упражнение 45

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или Future Simple.

1. You (to think) it (to be) easy or difficult to choose the right presents for people? 2. We (to go) to school in the morning. 3. They (not to drink) tea now. I (to think) they (to watch) TV. 4. What present your mother (to receive) for her next birthday? 5. Look! Kate (to go) to school. 6. What your father (to drink) in the evening? 7. You (to help) your mother tomorrow? 8. When you (to get) up every day? – I (to get) up at seven o’clock. 9. I (not to play) the guitar now. 10. My brother usually (not to get) up at seven o’clock. As a rule, he (to get) up at six o’clock, but tomorrow he (to get) up at seven o’clock. 11. My brother (to play) the guitar every evening. 12. Why she (to come) home so late tomorrow? 13. They (not to take) care of the garden next summer. 14. We (to go) to the country the day after tomorrow.

Упражнение 46

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Simple или Future Simple.

1. You (to like) apples? 2. Our friends always (to go) to the country for the weekend. 3. You (to eat) apples tomorrow? 4. Look! The kitten (to play) with its tail. 5. Nick (to read) a lot of books. 6. Your parents (to watch) TV now? 7. Mother (to work) every day. 8. My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen. She (to help) mother in the kitchen every day. 9. He (not to sleep) now. 10. Your brother (to go) to the exhibition next Sunday? 11. We (not to go) to the zoo tomorrow. 12. I (not to learn) the poem now. 13. She (to live) in San Francisco. 14. My father (to shoot) very well. 15. He is very strong. Look! He (to carry) a very heavy box.

Упражнение 47

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в нужном времени.

1. Before you (to cross) the park, you will come to a supermarket. 2. When you (to cross) the park, you will see the hospital. 3. If you (to translate) this article into English, I will use it in my report. 4. If she (to be) in Toronto now, she will meet you at the railway station. 5. If you (not to hurry), you will miss the train. 6. If it (to rain), we shan’t go to the country. 7. When my friend (to come) to Toronto, we will go to the Art Museum. 8. What will you be doing when he (to come) to your place? 9. Don’t forget to pay for your dinner before you (to leave) the canteen. 10. I will be able to translate this article if you (to give) me a dictionary. 11. You will have to work hard at home if you (to miss) the lesson. 12. Where will you go when you (to come) to London? 13. The child won’t be healthy if you (not to give) him much fruit. 14. I shan’t have dinner before mother (to come) home. 15. What will you do if you (not to finish) your homework tonight? 16. She will wait for him till he (to come) back. 17. What do you want to do after you (to leave) school? 18. I’ll call you as soon as I (to get) home from the hospital.

Упражнение 48

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Future Simple. (Все предложения относятся к будущему.)

1. If I (to stay) some more days in your town, I (to call) on you and we (to have) a good talk. 2. If the weather (to be) nice, we probably (to go) to the beach. 3. My grandmother is superstitious. She always says to me, “If you (to spill) salt, you should throw a little salt over your left shoulder. If you (not to do) this, you (to have) bad luck. If you (to break) a mirror, you (to have) bad luck for seven years.” 4. He (to go) to the Public Library very often when he (to be) a student. 5. If he still (to have) a cold and (not to feel) better, he (not to go) to a disco. 6. I (not to speak) to him until he (to apologize). 7. As soon as I (to return) from school, I (to ring) you up. 8. If you (to decide) to forget about your diet, you (to eat) a piece of wedding cake tomorrow. 9. Peter (to introduce) us to his friends as soon as we (to meet) them. 10. You (to pass) many towns and villages on your way before you (to arrive) in Toronto. 11. If I (to drink) too much champagne at my friend’s wedding, I (to get) a bad headache. 12. We (to go) to the station to meet Sergei when he (to come) to Toronto. 13. I (to stay) at home till she (to come). Then we (to go) to the theatre if she (to bring) the tickets. 14. If they (to go) to California next year, they (to visit) his friend in San Francisco. 15. Don’t go away until mother (to come) back. Give her the note as soon as she (to come).

Упражнение 49

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Future Simple. (Все предложения относятся к будущему.)

1. I (to go). 2. If she (not to work) properly, her boss (to fire) her and (to hire) my sister. 3. You (to go) to the library with us? – No, I …. I (to stay) here and (to help) Jane with her grammar. I (to come) to the library after I (to finish). 4. When he (to return) to Toronto, he (to call) on us. 5. I (to see) you before you (to start)? 6. Ring me up before you (to come). 7. If I (to see) him, I (to tell) him about their letter. 8. What he (to do) when he (to come) home? 9. I (to speak) to Mary if I (to see) her today. 10. We (to gather) at our place when my brother (to come) back from Africa. 11. Where they (to go) if the weather (to be) fine? 12. If you (to ask) me a difficult question, I (to be) nervous. If I (to be) nervous, I (to make) a mistake. If I (to make) a mistake, the other students (to laugh) at me. If the other students (to laugh) at me, I (to be) embarrassed. And if I (to be) embarrassed, I (to cry). So please don’t ask me a difficult question! 13. I (to sing) this song with you if you (to tell) me the words. 14. He (to ring) me up when he (to return) home. 15. I hope you (to join) us when we (to gather) in our country house the next time.

Упражнение 50

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Future Simple. (Все предложения относятся к будущему.)

1. If it (to rain), we (to stay) at home. 2. What you (to do) when you (to come) home? 3. She (to walk) home if it (not to be) too cold. 4. When they (to cross) the road, they (to see) the hotel. 5. I am sure he (to come) to say goodbye to us before he (to leave) Toronto. 6. Before she (to get) to the theatre, she (to go) past the shopping centre. 7. Please turn off the light when you (to leave) the room. 8. What we (to do) if it (to rain) tonight? 9. If we (to be) tired, we (to stop) at a small village halfway to Toronto and (to have) a short rest and a meal there. 10. What she (to do) if she (to see) her best friend again? 11. If you (to miss) the 10.30 train, there is another at 10.35. 12. If the bus (to be) very crowded, you (to be) exhausted by the time you (to get) to work. 13. She (to make) all the arrangements about it before she (to fly) there. 14. If it (to be) very cold tonight, our car (not to start) in the morning. 15. Before he (to start) for London, he (to spend) a week or two at a holiday resort not far from here. 16. He (to watch) videos after he (to finish) his homework.

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