Данное учебное пособие предназначено для начинающих и практикующих флористов с языковым уровнем В1.
Цель – обеспечение флористов лексическим минимумом, необходимым для понимания терминологии, принятой в профессиональной среде на международном уровне, чтения и перевода текстов флористической тематики, пополнения активного словарного запаса для выработки коммуникативных навыков и успешных коммуникаций в международных обществах флористов.
Лексический текстовый материал представлен аутентичными текстами, заимствованными с англоязычных сайтов. Каждый раздел сопровождается списком использованных источников и ссылками на веб-страницы организаций и блоги. Упражнения предполагают как индивидуальную, так и парную/групповую аудиторную работу.
Памятка для самостоятельной работы:
Выполняйте задания в юнитах по порядку;
Внимательно читайте формулировки задания;
Ответы на тренировочные задания стоит смотреть после того, как задание полностью сделано;
При возникновении трудностей грамматического или лексического характера проанализируйте ответы и перечитайте правила. Это поможет в дальнейшем не допускать ошибок;
Используйте рефлексивный блок Now you know после прохождения юнита (отмечайте, какие пункты вы поняли и изучили), чтобы понимать, на каком этапе Вы остановились;
По прохождению всех юнитов сделайте итоговый тест. При возникновении сложностей с лексикой или грамматикой – вернитесь в соответствующий юнит для повторения.
1. Read the following proverbs about flowers and use phrases from the table to express your opinion:
The flowers in your garden don’t smell as sweet as those in the wild, but they last much longer.
~ Chinese Proverb
Each day you can admire the moon, the snow and the flowers.
~ Japanese Proverb
2. Read the following definition of floristry and write down your own:
Floristry – the branch of botany concerned with the types, numbers, and distribution of plant species in a particular area.
3. Read the text and match words with the pictures:
Flowers have been symbols of beauty in most civilizations of the world, and flower giving is still among the most popular of social amenities. As gifts, flowers serve as expressions of affection for spouses, other family members, and friends; as decorations at weddings and other ceremonies; as tokens of respect for the deceased; as cheering gifts to the bedridden; and as expressions of thanks or appreciation. Most flowers bought by the public are grown in commercial greenhouses or horticultural fields and then sold through wholesalers to retail florists.
4. Read the text about the history of floristry and complete the table:
Throughout the history of art, certain subjects have resonated particularly strongly with artists and audiences alike. Ranging from cats to Cupid, these revisited trends reveal art's most popular muses, with flowers at the forefront.
Rooted in ancient art and still prevalent today, depictions of blossoms, blooms, and other botanical elements can be found in many of the most significant art movements, whether carved into clay or starring in a still-life. Here, we trace the history of the humble flower in art, exploring its evolution and identifying iconographic trends that have attracted artists for centuries.
In Ancient Egyptian mythology, the lotus flower symbolized the sun and had strong ties to the concept of creation and rebirth. A simplified and stylized lotus motif was often used to adorn artistic objects, including papyrus paintings, amulets, and ceramics.
In addition to ornamental decorations, Egyptians also employed flowers as an artistic medium. In King Tutankhamun's tomb, for example, multiple collar necklaces made of dyed linen and cut blossoms—including sunflowers, cornflowers, poppies, and blue lotuses—were found among his many trinkets and treasures.
Floral motifs were also prominent in decorative art of the Middle Ages. During this period, tapestries and other large-scale textile art gained popularity, popping up in castles and churches across Europe. In many of these works, the subject—often a group of figures—is placed against a backdrop embellished with repeating floral patterns. These pieces are known as millefleur (from the French mille-fleurs, or “thousand flowers”) tapestries.
During the Italian Renaissance, artists were inspired by millefleur tapestries and often incorporated floral designs into their large-scale mythological paintings. In Primavera by Botticelli, the goddess of Spring is shown sprinkling flowers on the blossom-covered forest floor, which make up most of the 190 blooms featured in the painting.
At this time, many Renaissance artists in Northern Europe specialized in still-life painting. Often, these depictions featured floral arrangements that, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, “typically combined flowers from different countries and even different continents in one vase and at one moment of blooming,” illustrating the importance and prevalence of botanical books and other floral studies during the Northern Renaissance.
5. Match the words from the text with their definitions:
6. Math the names of flowers with the photos:
7. Read the text about present times and put suitable verbs into the brackets:
are continue give has come
Just like every other art form, floral design is in a constant state of growth. Both traditional and line mass arrangements ________ to be important in modern design and decoration. Flower arranging _____________ a long way from the early periods. Thanks to the thousands of flower hybrids and growing techniques, flowers that used to be only available in season _________ now available all year round. Materials like Floral Foam, shaping wire, and individual water phials __________ us unlimited ways to create beautiful floral arrangements that can last longer than ever before.
8. Match the following sentences with grammar tenses:
9. Study the rules:
Add -es if the word ends in -sh, -s, -ch, -x, -z (watchES)
In verbs ending in a consonant + -y, change -y into -ies (cry – crIES)
We use Present Simple for:
My cousin buys the same bouquet for his mother every year.
We use Present Perfect:
For past life experience without concrete date/time
Action from the past has a result
Action started in the past and is still continuing
She has visited Floral Conferences for 5 times.
Some letters are doubled (consonant-vowel-consonant in the end): getting, swimming
Letter e in the end disappear: write – writing
There are non-action verbs which we can use only in simple (know, want…)
We use Present Continuous for:
Actions at the moment
Personal arrangements with a concrete date/time
She is arranging a rose bouquet right now.
10. Put the verbs in brackets into correct grammar tenses:
Flower trends _______ constantly ____________ (evolve).
Consumers _________ never ________(benefit) more from the emotional well-being connected to having flowers in their lives than right now
Flowers __________(have) the power to bring happiness and security into people’s lives
Flower.Style _________(share) the inspiration theme FOLK, as one of the emerging themes for flower trends.
Oasis Design Director Sandy Schroeck ___________(provide) insight into 2021 color trends for all things floral
Trendbook ____________(provide) a sneak peek into four emerging themes
The antique yellows that ____________(trend) are replaced with a hotter pink accent in the linens to provide a refreshing palette
Consumers worldwide _____________(see) that flowers and plants are important when working from home
New life-style trends ________________(impact) how people see and value flowers and plants.
Sustainability _________(be) really about caring
Now you know:
–A short history of floristry
–Phrases of agreement/disagreement
–How to differ and use Present Simple/Present Continuous/ Present Perfect
1. Read the quotation and explain how you understand it:
“Open the bloom of your heart and become a gift of beauty to the world.”
– Bryant McGill
2. Discuss the questions:
Do you agree that flowers can bring an inspiration? How?
Can you think of the ways flowers can be used in art?
Do you know any famous paintings with flowers?
3. Look at the paintings and match them with flowers:
4. Read the text about floral motives in paintings in different ages and complete a timeline with a name of period in art and a brief description of each period:
Renaissance – 1400s
Renaissance paintings used flowers that conveyed deep philosophical and Christian symbolism as a guide for illuminating divine mysteries. For instance, the white lily was often used as an emblem for the Virgin Mary during this period as a symbol of her purity and radiance.
Baroque & The Dutch Masters – 1600s
The Dutch masters crafted incredible still life scenes, using stark blossoms that seemed to leap beyond the canvas. Though rendered realistically, these arrangements were almost always artistic fantasies, showing flowers together that would never have been in bloom during the same season.
Impressionism & Post Impressionism – late 1800s
“The Sunflower is mine”—van Gogh. Many Impressionists and Post-Impressionists painted flowers that were personally meaningful to them, as opposed to their cultural or religious symbolism. Van Gogh for example took the sunflower as his own personal artistic signature as he created several versions of them and they became a distinctive and popular part of his body of work.
Expressionism & Fauvism – early 1900s
Rejecting perfectionist styles, expressionists and fauvists depicted everyday moments in life in a progressive way that was characterised by dramatic use of colour and highly exaggerated forms. Henri Matisse, considered to be one of the 20th century’s most important French painters, regularly depicted flowers in his works, and is famously quoted as saying ‘There are always flowers for those who want to see them’.
Surrealism & Pop Art – mid 1900s
In the mid 1900’s the depiction of flowers transformed from being observations of nature to more abstract forms. Pop Artist Andy Warhol often painted flowers in a way that could not be pinned down to a particular species.
Post-Modernism – 1970s+
From the end of the 20th century onward, flowers have starred as works of art in their own right. Like Jeff Koons’ 43-foot-tall sculpture of a West Highland Terrier which is covered in a colourful carpet of over 60,000 flowering plants, flowers are no longer just being depicted on canvas.
5. Look through the text again and choose in which grammar tense are the words in bold used:
6. Answer the questions:
In which situations is the chosen grammar tense from exc. 5 used in the text?
What should be added to the verb?
7. Study the rules:
We use Past Simple:
Facts in the past (usually with concrete time)
I bought flowers yesterday.
We use Past Continuous:
For background actions that were in process in the past
I was buying flowers when she called.
We use Past Perfect:
For actions that happened before action in the past
I went to the floral shop and realized that I had forgotten my keys at home.
8. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct past grammar tense:
Renoir frequently________(paint) roses—most often red ones.
He____________(paint) sunflowers in the garden when she_________(come).
Piet Mondrian, being Dutch,__________(come) from a long cultural tradition of flower art.
Alex _________(go) to the park to paint some lilac when he ________(understand) that he___________(forget) his pencils.
Redon_________(not turn) to flower painting until he_____(be) 60 years old.
When she ___________(gather) flowers she________(hear) a noise behind her.
He ______________(not listen) a lecturer, because he ________(read) about foral design before.
9. Choose one of the following floral art-projects. Imagine that you’re an author of one of them. Create the story of how you made it using phrases below and past grammar tenses:
Remember to say:
Which flowers you used
What did you do
The next thing/point is …
In addition to…
Despite / in spite of…
On the other hand,…
Finishing the story:
As a result
Now you know:
–Historical facts about using flower motives in art
–Phrases to order information, show the contrast and finish the story
–How to differ and use Past Simple/Past Continuous/ Past Perfect
1. Study the names of flowers and give Russian equivalents:
2. Check the description, find out which flowers are described and fill in the gaps:
One of the most interesting colors of a ________ variety is the deep purple of the Queen of the Night________.
The usual_______ flower color is a shade of purple, but white, light blue, pale yellow and pink, and even a dark burgundy color are also found.
_______ oil is an important ingredient in the perfume industry.
Before _______was hung in houses to accompany Christmas trees, it was considered to be a sacred plant by the Druids.
_________ are also known as "frost flowers" because florists often use these flowers during the autumn and winter for the preparation of various floral arrangements.
_________ can live on the ground, attached to woody plants or even thrive under the ground.
_________ has green leaves covered with hairs. Leaves can be heart-shaped or ovate.
Other common names for _________ include lion’s mouth, calf’s snout and toad’s mouth.
_____________ are edible, they have citrus-like taste.
Wood of __________ is used for the production of pallets and furniture.
3. Read the text and fill in the mind-map:
Inflorescence – a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch – соцветие
Form and types
Flowers present a variety of combinations in their range of colour, size, form, and anatomical arrangement. They range in size from minute blossoms to giant blooms. In some plants, such as poppy, magnolia, tulip, and petunia, each flower is relatively large and showy and is produced singly, while in other plants, such as aster, snapdragon, and lilac, the individual flowers may be very small and are borne in a distinctive cluster known as an inflorescence. Regardless of their variety, all flowers have a uniform function, the reproduction of the species through the production of seed.
Basically, each flower consists of a floral axis upon which are borne the essential organs of reproduction (stamens and pistils) and usually accessory organs (sepals and petals). The floral axis is a greatly modified stem; it is usually contracted, so that the parts of the flower are crowded together on the stem tip, the receptacle. The flower parts are usually arrayed in whorls but may also be disposed spirally.
There are commonly four distinct whorls of flower parts: (1) an outer calyx consisting of sepals; within it lies (2) the corolla, consisting of petals; (3) the androecium, or group of stamens; and in the centre is (4) the gynoecium, consisting of the pistils.
The sepals and petals together make up the perianth, or floral envelope. The sepals are usually greenish, while the petals are usually colourful and showy. The androecium, or male parts of the flower, comprise the stamens, each of which consists of a supporting filament and an anther, in which pollen is produced. The gynoecium, or female parts of the flower, comprises one or more pistils, each of which consists of an ovary, with an upright extension, the style, on the top of which rests the stigma, the pollen-receptive surface. The ovary encloses the ovules, or potential seeds.
Stamens and pistils are not present together in all flowers. When both are present the flower is said to be perfect, or bisexual, regardless of a lack of any other part that renders it incomplete. When the same plant bears unisexual flowers of both sexes, it is said to be monoecious (e.g. tuberous begonia); when the male and female flowers are on different plants, the plant is dioecious (e.g. holly); when there are male, female, and bisexual flowers on the same plant, the plant is termed polygamous.
A flower may be radially symmetrical, as in roses and petunias, in which case it is termed regular. A bilaterally symmetrical flower, as in orchids and snapdragons, is irregular.
4. Match anatomic words and definitions:
5. Match preposition of place with the pictures according to the blue ball position:
6. Choose any flower from ex. 1 and describe it according to the mind-map with the use of preposition of place and useful phrases:
In the picture I can see …
There’s / There are some…
There isn’t a … / There aren’t any …
Now you know:
–Anatomy of flower
–Main botanical forms of flowers
–Prepositions of place
–How to describe flowers with the use of there is/ there are