Англійська мова. Теорія і практика. Артикль

Ричард Грант
Англійська мова. Теорія і практика. Артикль

Перед кожним загальним іменником повинен стояти артикль.

Артикль не вживається, якщо перед іменником стоїть:

– присвійний займенник my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, hers, ours, theirs

My (немає артикля) friend is very good. – Мiй друг дуже хороший.

– вказівний займенник this, these, that, those, it, such, the same

That (немає артикля) boy is her brother. – Той хлопчик – її брат.

– іншій іменник в присвійному відмінку

Her brother’s (немає артикля) name is Nick. – Iм’я її брата – Нiк.

– кількісний числівник

They have got two (немає артикля) children. – У них двоє дiтей.

– заперечення no (не not!)

I have no (немає артикля) pet. – У менe не має домашньої тварини.

I am not a doctor. – Я не лiкар.

Згадуючи предмет вперше, ми вживаємо перед ним неозначений артикль a (an), який може вживатися тільки з обчислювальними іменниками, що стоять в однині. Перед необчислювальними іменниками або іменниками в множині неозначений артикль опускається.

Артикль a ставиться перед іменниками, які починаються з голосного звуку, артикль an ставиться перед іменниками, які починаються з приголосного звука.

Нижче наведені необчислювальні іменники, поділені на кілька смислових груп:

їжа: meat, salt, bread, chocolate, soup;

рідини: tea, coffee, lemonade, petrol, oil, shampoo;

матеріали і речовини: gold, wood, sand, paper, coal;

абстрактні поняття: happiness, love, friendship, beauty;

предмети вивчення і мови: chemistry, literature, Spanish;

хвороби: flu, mumps, measles;

інше: money, furniture, weather.

Згадуючи цей же предмет вдруге, ми ставимо перед ним означений артикль the, який вживається як з обчислювальними, так і з необчислювальними іменниками, як в однині, так і в множині.

This is a book. The book is interesting. (book – обчислювальний іменник в однині)

This is (немає артикля) meat. The meat is fresh. (meat – необчислювальний іменник)

These are (немає артикля) books. The books are good. (books – обчислювальний іменник в множинi)

Вправи

Запам'ятайте:

This is a … – That is a … – It is a …

I have a … – Не has a …

I am a … – Не is a … – She is a …

I see a …

a lot of

Вправа 1

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. This is … pen. That is … pencil. 2. This is … book. It is my … book. 3. Is this your … pencil? – No, it isn’t my … pencil, it is my sister’s … pencil. 4. I have … sister. My … sister is … engineer. My sister’s … husband is … doctor. They have got two … children. 5. This is … girl. This … girl is their … daughter. Their daughter’s … name is Ann. 6. That is … boy. That … boy is her … brother. Her brother’s … name is Nick. 7. This is our … flat. 8. We have got … car. Our … car is not very expensive but reliable. 9. I have no … pet. 10. My granny has got … headache. She has no … idea what to do. 11. I have … friend. His … name is Mike. My … friend is very good. 12. It’s … cat. Its … tail is long and bushy. It’s Mike’s … cat. 13. Would you like … orange? 14. Mr. Smith is … artist. Mrs. Smith is … poetess. She is not … singer.

Вправа 2

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. When is your … birthday? – My … birthday is (on) … 1st May. 2. Do you remember your mother’s … birthday? – Yes, I do. 3. His … uncle is generous and her … aunt is very kind. 4. That … man is very clever. His … book is recognized by a lot of people. 5. They know our … address. 6. Their … son speaks English very well. 7. My cousin’s … dog is small. Its … hair is curly. 8. Is this … watch? – No, it isn’t … watch, it’s … pen. 9. This … pen is good, and that … pen is bad. 10. I can see … pencil on your … table, but I can see no … paper. 11. Give me … chair, please. 12. They have … dog and two … cats. 13. I have … spoon in my … soup plate, but I have no … soup in it. 14. My … friend says he is going to be … millionaire one … day.

Запам'ятайте:

What a good boy!

What a long story!

What a day!

What a smart girl!

What a lovely view!

What a pity!

What a surprise!

to have (breakfast/lunch/tea/dinner/supper)

to cook (breakfast/lunch/tea/dinner/supper)

to make (breakfast/lunch/tea/dinner/supper)

to prepare (breakfast/lunch/tea/dinner/supper)

in the morning – in the afternoon – in the evening

at night

at school – at home – at work

to watch TV

Вправа 3

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. He hasn’t got … car. But he’s got … computer. … computer is new. 2. His … friends have got … cat and … dog. … dog never bites … cat. 3. This is … tree. … tree is green. 4. I can see three … boys. … boys are playing. 5. I have … bicycle. … bicycle is black. My … friend has no … bicycle. 6. Our … room is large. 7. We wrote … dictation yesterday. … dictation was long. 8. She has two … daughters and one … son. Her … son is … pupil. 9. Last year I gave my … mother … bracelet for her … birthday. She liked … bracelet. 10. My … brother’s … friend has no … dog. 11. This … pencil is broken. Give me that … pencil, please. 12. She has … ball. … ball is … big. 13. I got … letter from my … friend yesterday. … letter was interesting. 14. When they were in Geneva, they stayed at … hotel. Sometimes they had dinner at … hotel and sometimes in … restaurant.

Вправа 4

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. This is … pen. … pen is red. 2. These are pencils. … pencils are black. 3. This is … soup. … soup is so tasty. 4. In the morning I eat … sandwich and drink … tea. 5. She gave me … coffee and … cake. … coffee was hot. … cake was very tasty. 6. Do you like … ice cream? 7. I see … book in your … hand. Is … book interesting? 8. Do you need … camera? 9. He never eats … meat, he always eats … vegetables, … cereals, … seeds, … fruit, and … nuts. He is … vegetarian. 10. This is … pineapple. … pineapple is delicious. 11. Elaine, … apples are good for you! 12. My … cousin is upset. He’s got … sore throat. 13. This is … cottage cheese. … cottage cheese is fresh. 14. She bought … meat, … butter and … potatoes yesterday. She also bought … cake. … cake was … delicious. We ate … cake and drank … tea. 15. This is my … table. On … table I have … books, two … pencils, … pen and … paper.

Вправа 5

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. I have two … sisters. My … sisters are … students. 2. We are at … home. 3. My … brother is not at … home, he is at … school. 4. My … mother is at … work. She is … doctor. 5. I am not … doctor. 6. He has no … sister. 7. He is not … pilot. 8. I have thirty-two … teeth. 9. He has … child. 10. She has two … children. Her children are at … school. 11. Is your father at … home? – No, he is at … work. 12. Where is your … brother? – He is at … home. 13. I’ve got … idea. 14. What … surprise! Our … parents gave us … DVD player for Christmas. 15. This is … bag. … bag is brown. It is my sister’s … bag. And this is my … bag. It is … yellow.

Якщо перед іменником вживається прикметник, то він стоїть між неозначеним артиклем і іменником.

This is a book. This is a good book.

Навіть згадуючи предмет вперше, ми, тим не менш, вживаємо перед ним означений артикль:

а) якщо згаданий предмет є єдиним в світі:

The sun is shining brightly.

б) якщо цей предмет є певним по ситуації:

Put the book on the table.

Вправа 6

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1.We have … large … family. 2. My granny of-ten tells us … long … interesting … stories. 3. My … father is … engineer. He works in … factory. … factory is large. 4. My … mother is … doctor. She works at … large … hospital. She is at … work now. 5. My … aunt is … teacher. She works at … school. … school is good. My … aunt is not at … school now. She is at … home. She is drinking … tea and eating … jam. … jam is sweet. I am at … home, too. I am drinking … tea and eating … sandwich. … sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at … school. She is … pupil. 7. My cousin has … big … black … cat. My cousin’s … cat has two … kittens. … cat likes … milk. … kittens like … milk, too. 8. I am … engineer. 9. My … son is … pupil. 10. He is … good … pupil. 11. This is … house. 12. This is my … laptop.

Вправа 7

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. What’s … weather like today? – … weather is fine. 2. … sun is yellow. 3. … sky is grey today. 4. … Earth is … planet. 5. We had … English lesson yesterday. … teacher asked me many … questions. … questions were difficult. 6. Where is your … brother? – He is at … home. He is in his … room. He is sitting at … table. He is doing his … homework. … homework is difficult. 7. Our … cat is sitting on … sofa. 8. It is very dark in … room. Turn on … light, please. 9. Nick went into … bathroom, turned on … water and washed his … hands. 10. Ann turned on … television to watch … evening news. 11. She doesn’t often watch … TV. 12. You can’t see … moon in … sky tonight.

Вправа 8

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. This is … good … book. Take … book from … table. Put this … book in … bookcase. 2. … weather is fine today. … sky is blue. … sun is shining brightly in … blue … sky. 3. This is … boy. … boy is at … school. He is … pupil. This … boy is my … brother’s … friend. He has … cat, but he has no … dog. He likes his … cat. He gives … cat … milk every day. 4. Yesterday I received … letter from my … friend. … letter was important. 5. We live in … big house. I like … house very much. 6. Are you … worker? – No, I am … student. 7. I like your … beautiful … flower. Give me … flower, please. 8. My … mother is at … home. She is reading … marvellous … story. 9. My … father is not at … home. He is at … work. He is not … lawyer. He is … doctor. He is … good … doctor. He works at … hospital. … hospital is large. 10. That is… book. … book is thick. That … book isn’t thin. This is … interesting thick book. 11. Those are … books. … books are new and old. Those are … new and old books. Those … books are interesting. 12. You have some … pencils, but I have no … pencil. Give me … pencil, please. 13. It’s … small … animal that has … long … ears, … short … tail, and … soft … hair.

 

Запам’ятайте:

Where is the … ?

There is a … .

in front of

Вправа 9

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. There is … big tree in … garden. 2. There is … bank near here. – Where is … bank? 3. There is … new supermarket in … centre of our … town. 4. There is … hotel over there. … hotel isn’t cheap. 5. Where is … cat? – … cat is on … sofa. 6. Where is … book? – … book is on … shelf. 7. Where are … flowers? – … flowers are in … beautiful vase. 8. Where is … vase? – … vase is on … little table near … window. 9. Open … window, please. … weather is fine today. I can see … sun in … sky. I can see … nice little bird. … bird is sitting in … big tree. … tree is green. 10. There is … little white cloud in … sky. 11. What … beautiful … day! 12. We have … large room. There is … big sofa in … room and … little lamp on … wall over … sofa. I like to sit on … sofa and read … good book. 13. This is … computer. … computer isn’t old. This … computer is new. This is … good new computer.

Вправа 10

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1.There is … wonderful small computer in … front of … books there. 2. Where is … soup? – … soup is in … big saucepan on … gas cooker. 3. Where are … cutlets? – … cutlets are in … refrigerator on … little plate. 4. There is no … bread on … table. Where is … bread? 5. There is … little brown coffee table in our … room in … front of … sofa. 6. Where is … table in your … room? 7. There is … thick carpet on … floor in my mother’s … room. 8. Is your brother at … home? – No, he is at … work. He works in … big factory. He is … engineer. 9. My sister has many … books. … books are in … big bookcase. She has really … good … taste in … books. 10. … weather is fine today. Let’s go and play in … yard. There are many … children in … yard. They are playing with … ball. 11. These are … computers. … computers are new. These aren’t … old computers. These are … new computers. These … computers are good. 12. There was … beautiful flower in this … vase yesterday. Where is … flower now? 13. Last year we were in Geneva. It is … exciting city to visit, but … very expensive place to live.

Вправа 11

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. I see … bottle of … pineapple … juice on … kitchen table. 2. Her … son has … great … sense of … humor. 3. There was … disco at … club last Sunday but he didn’t go. 4. Is there … bus stop near … building? 5. We have … big dog. … dog is very clever. 6. My friend has … very good computer. 7. This … boy is big. He is … student. 8. There is … large piano in … hall. 9. This is … tree and that is not … tree. It’s … bush. 10. I am … boy. I am … pupil. I study at … school. 11. My sister is at … work. She is … secretary. She works for … new company. 12. This is … very difficult question. I don’t know … answer to it. 13. Do you see … little girl with … big ball in her … hands? She is … pupil of our … school.

Запам’ятайте:

in the middle – in the corner

to the right – to the left

Якщо після конструкції there is (there are) йде необчислювальний іменник або іменник у множині, замість опущеного неозначеного артикля часто (не обов'язково) вживається слово some.

Вправа 12

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. There is … jar of … delicious orange marmalade in … middle of … shelf. 2. There is … big … box of … cereal to … right of you. 3. There is … bunch of … bananas on … table. Don’t keep them in … fridge. 4. There is … loaf of … white … bread on … upper … shelf of … fridge. If you want your … bread to be fresh, keep it in … fridge. 5. Is there … bag of … flour in … cupboard? 6. There was … bottle of … drinking water in … corner of … kitchen. 7. There is … thick red … carpet in my … room. … carpet is on … floor in … front of … sofa. 8. Where is … table in your brother’s … room? – His … table is near … window. 9. I can see … fine … vase on … shelf. There are … lovely … flowers in … vase. 10. They have no … piano in their … living room. 11. My … uncle is … married. He has … beautiful wife. They have … son, but they have no … daughter. 12. I can see … nice … coffee table in … middle of … room to … right of … door. It is … black and … red. I like … coffee table. 13. Our … TV set is on … little … table in … corner of … room. 14. There is … beautiful picture in my father’s … study. … picture is on … wall to … left of … window.

Вправа 13

Вставте артикль, де необхідно.

1. There is … park behind … hospital. There are … beautiful … trees in … park. 2. There is … good … film on TV this … evening. I am going to watch it. 3. There is … library between … school and … bank. There are … English and German books in this … library. 4. There is … sofa in … corner of … room. 5. There are … cushions on … sofa. 6. There are … books on … shelf. Give me … book, please. 7. What can you see in … fridge? – There is … sausage on … top shelf, but there is no … cheese there. There is … butter in … butter dish. There are … tomatoes and … carrots on … bottom shelf. There are … eggs and … apples on … next shelf. There is … orange, … lemon, and … jam in … little jar there. 8. There is … juice in this … carton. May I drink … juice? 9. There are … girls in … yard, but I can see no … boys. Where are … boys? – Oh, all … boys are playing football at … stadium. 10. There is … peculiar charm in her … voice. 11. There is … money in … purse. 12. What … picture! 13. There is … guitar on … chair near … piano. 14.There was … piano in … corner of … living room. He sat at … piano for … hours, playing … favourite pieces from … classical music. He was … wonderful piano player.

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